I don't have access to the book, but some of these things can be worked out, I think.
Genealogyresources.org has numerous full and substitute Virginia census records (for purchase, but with summaries online). As an example, the page for Halifax County notes:
The early laws required ... the names of the person chargeable with the tax, the names of white male tithables over the age of twenty-one, the number of white male tithables between ages sixteen and twenty-one, the number of slaves both above and below age sixteen, various types of animals such as horses and cattle, carriage wheels, ordinary licenses, and even billiard tables. Free Negroes are listed by name and often denoted in the list as “free” or “FN.”
The present abstract of Halifax's 1810 personal property tax list is NOT a transcript of the entire document; rather, it is a summary of three items ... number of male tithables 16 and older, number of slaves twelve years and older, and the number of horses.
In the current volume, the data is recorded thus:
Bruce, James 1 43 29
to indicate one tithable male, forty-three slaves over 12, and twenty-nine horses, mares or mules.
While this isn't necessarily using the same abstract data, it looks plausibly similar. So I think the three columns in your table are:
- white males over 16 years old
- slaves over 12 years old
"At Col. Wilson's" probably indicates that Jesse Monday was living with Colonel John Wilson, who is in the right hand column of the line above (with his two sons).
I suspect that he is this Colonel John Wilson:
the son of Peter Wilson who patented land along the Sandy River in 1746 and founded a ferry on the Dan some six miles above Danville. The family became enormously wealthy holding a vast acreage and many slaves.
According to the venerable historian Maud Clement, John married Mary Lumpkin and they reared a family at Dan's Hill on the Dan.
There's more about him here on Rootsweb.
The likely location, therefore, is Danville (the town) or Dan's Hill (the Wilson's estate), which appear to be in Pittsylvania County, VA. The genealogyresources.org surname list for the 1810 taxation list in that county includes Wilson, Monday and Ragsdale, as in your table, so it's probably the right one.