I can not read either occupations on this 1841 UK census date for James Nichols and his father William Nichols, can somebody else read it?

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I can not find any occupations starting with PIN that match William but I thought it may say pension. Maybe it might be that they were not illiterate people.

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    Welcome to G&FH SE! As a new user be sure to take the Tour to learn about our focussed Q&A format which is quite different from bulletin boards, discussion forums and other Q&A sites you may be used to. My stab at your question would be "Pension" for William and "under Government" for James but I suspect others here may be able to give more definitive answers. Have you found either in the 1851 (or later) Census? If so, their occupation there may shed some light. I found their 1841 record at Leonard Street, St Leonard Shoreditch, Shoreditch, London & Middlesex, England. – PolyGeo Nov 7 '17 at 5:34
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    Would it help to look at the 1841 Census report about occupations? You can access it on Histpop.org -- "Occupation abstract, England and Wales, 1841" histpop.org/ohpr/servlet/… – Jan Murphy Nov 7 '17 at 8:11

I agree that William Nichol's occupation is listed as Pension. It is difficult to interpret this any more specifically than he was living off a pension income rather than traditional wage. It is a matter of speculation as to the source of the pension, however it is not uncommon to find war pensioners to be listed as such on the 1841 census. Certainly there were not state pensions in 1841, so the government or a private benefactor were likely sources. It is worth checking military records to rule out whether he served in the Napoleonic Wars, as he is about the right age.

James Nichols was an Under Governor (apparently spelled Governer). I expect this meant James worked under the Governor (i.e. head) of a prison. A quick search of 1841 newspapers reveals this use of the occupation, in an account of a prison visit to Feargus O'Connor described in the Northern Star on 20 Feb 1841:

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Identifying local prisons is the first step to determining what, if any, additional occupational records may exist for Nichols. Fortunately state-run institutions more commonly have better or more easily accessible records than private institutions.

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