What is the meaning of my family name, Majersdorf.
(Also spelled Maiersdorf, Meierdorf, Meyersdorf, Myersdorf.)
Majersdorf is a compound word,
Majers + dorf
The "Meier" (see Meier for all its spelling variations)
was a functionary (an overseer or steward) in the household of a higher status individual. Familiar English cognates are mayor and major.
Meier eventually would also be used as a given name. (See Meier Name Meaning)
Dorf is German for village
Thus Majersdorf is the village of (the) Meier.
As a surname, it may have derived from the village once known as "Meiersdorf" and is now Mirkowice, just inside the western border of Poland. There may be other placename candidates or the appellation may have been general rather than specific.
In response to comments:
Geographically-derived names fall into 2 groups - addresses (location descriptions - Hill, Marsh, Wood) and origin (town, region and country names - Prager, Brandenburger, France). Origin names could denote ownership (for nobles!) or PREVIOUS residence. The smaller the "location", the less distance from that origin, at time of surname adoption. (The same pattern holds true today - when asked by a stranger where you are from, you tailor your answer to a place they recognize).
Surnames were adopted in Europe over a long period of time, starting in the 1300s in Italy, trending northward and eastward. Increasing populations meant that given names were not sufficient to distinguish individuals, even in the same town. In this phase, surnames were relevant to the individual - his actual occupation, his physical appearance or habits, his location or origin, or a family connection.
Eventually, the surname became linked to all family members and would be inherited. This process (flexible to fixed surnames) was not complete, even in Europe, until fairly recently (late 1800s). Depending on the region and group targeted, it may have been mandated by the authorities (Netherlands, Jews).
So - your geographic surname may have been "in the family" since the 1400s or it may have been chosen in the 1800s. You should research naming patterns and history of your family's region or country of origin, if you know it. There are books and websites with resources. If the surname was adopted late, there may be records of the process. If the surname was adopted early, historical addressbooks may give some indication of a shared regional origin.
Meiersdorf was in Silesia, but there are similar placenames (Maiersdorf, Mayersdorf) in Bavaria and Austria. With multiple candidates, there is the probability of multiple origin points (just as there were many ancestral Smiths).
In any case, research in surname origins for genealogy tends to be limited and of much less importance than research in primary records of individuals.