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I'm working with the earliest written church records in 1600s Germany, in the north-eastern Hesse area. I have a baptism record from 13 Apr 1611 where Hans Almerod is the sponsor for Johs Schmidt, and is mentioned as being the stepson of Hans Schweitzer.

From that, besides the obvious, I can say that:

  • [unknown woman] was the wife of Hans Schweitzer on 13 Apr 1611
  • [unknown woman] was married to Hans Schweitzer before 13 Apr 1611
  • [unknown woman] was married to ___ Almerod before 13 Apr 1611
  • [unknown woman] was married to ___ Almerod before she married Hans Schweitzer
  • [unknown woman] and ___ Almerod had a son named Hans Almerod
  • and it's probably safe to assume, barring any other records, that Hans Schweitzer was alive on 13 Apr 1611, as he isn't referred to in any way as being deceased

Further, given that marriages before age 15 (either gender) were essentially non-existant:

  • Hans Schweitzer was at least 15 on 13 Apr 1611
  • [unknown woman] was at least 15 on 13 Apr 1611
  • ___ Almerod would have been at least 15 on 13 Apr 1611

The question is, given that Hans Almerod was acting as a sponsor here, can this be taken a step further? Confirmation for males took place at age 14 almost universally, so if one needed to be confirmed to act as a sponsor, then:

  • Hans Almerod was at least 14 on 13 Apr 1611
  • [unknown woman] was at least 29 on 13 Apr 1611
  • ___ Almerod would have been at least 29 on 13 Apr 1611
  • and it'd probably be safe to assume that Hans Schweitzer would be at least 20ish on 13 Apr 1611

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As far as I know, yes. The godparents/sponsors guide (or are supposed to do so) the child's development in religious (and other) questions, so they have to be full members of the community.

As for the age, confirmation can occur later (due to illness, school, travel), but your assumption of the minimum age seems correct.

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