I have been able to trace my wife's ancestors to people born in the 1790s in the Pfalz region of Germany and in Alsace using civil records of births and deaths. Those records books were started in the 1790s as part of Napoleon's influence. My understanding is that Napoleon also decreed that Jews had to take on last names at that time (rather than relying on first name and patronymic) to make record-keeping easier.
What sorts of records can I use to investigate the family lines further? Where are such records kept, and if the locations of such records vary by region, how does one go about discovering where these may be? Whereas Catholic or Protestant family lines would be documented in the church records (and perhaps available from familysearch.org), what are appropriate sources for Jewish records?