I am transcribing a Nottinghamshire will and probate bond dated 1651, and two passages of the will are eluding me.

In the first passage the testator bequeaths unto his

"sonne my house & my Land wth the Appurtenants in any wise belonging or appertaineing wth all the kayre Lomes now ressident upon the grounds"

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What might "kayre Lomes" have meant?

In the second passage a word appears twice that I can't make head nor tail of:

I give unto Thomas Nickson The first Swarme of Bees Cassen after my desease and if all the Bees be dead in stead of the Swarme 10[s]

I give unto Robt Budd the second swarme thts Cassen after my desease & if the Bees be gone in lew there of the some of 10[s]

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What might "Cassen" have meant?

  • My first thought for the word in that second passage is "thereupon" but that is not backed up by any detailed analysis.
    – PolyGeo
    Commented Aug 28, 2015 at 2:32
  • What's the paragraph preceding the second passage? If it is a bequest of a bee hive, then I think I might be inclined to interpret the two unknown instances as "therefrom" -- he'd be bequeathing the swarms which split off from and leave the earlier mentioned bee hive.
    – RobertShaw
    Commented Aug 29, 2015 at 3:52
  • @RobertShaw The preceding paragraph is a completely separate bequest, nothing to do with bees.
    – Harry V.
    Commented Aug 29, 2015 at 4:04
  • For the first element, 'fair lambs'? definitely fayre as the first word.
    – user104
    Commented Sep 29, 2015 at 12:25
  • @ColeValleyGirl Perhaps you post this as an answer?
    – Harry V.
    Commented Sep 29, 2015 at 13:39

2 Answers 2


Kayer = A coarse sieve used to winnow corn (separate large from small)



Looms/Lomes = An open vessel of any kind; tub, bucket or vat


Lome = tool or implement https://books.google.com/books?id=fbw8BrRXcz8C&pg=PA1180&lpg=PA1180&dq=fayre+lomes&source=bl&ots=MFPOneltmf&sig=q1ghnlOGQXyHzm3iUcKfLOrOcJA&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0CC8Q6AEwA2oVChMIqbjzpvqcyAIVBxeSCh1QewwI#v=onepage&q=%20lomes&f=true


Cassen = Casting (cast off) = The second swarm of bees from one hive.

The first flight is termed a swarm; the second a cast; the third a colt; should they migrate a fourth time (a rare occurrence) it is called a spew.

The English Dialect Dictionary:

Sc. When the hive grows very throng, and yet not quite ready to cast, Maxwell Bee-master (1747) 34 (jam.). Abd. Our bees— never keest Bit hang at the skep-moo, Goodwife (1867) St. 29. s.Dur. Our bees is kessen in a berry bush ! (J.E.D.") w.Yks. A swarm a bees at wor kestin, Tom Treddlehoyle Bairnsla Ann. (1853); w.Yks.1 The bees are cast Lei.1

Hence (1) Casting, vbl. sb. the act of swarming; (2) Kesting-time, vbl. sb. about May, when bees cluster for the purpose.

  • Thanks for this, Rusty. I'm certain you are correct with the casting of bees. However I had come to quite a different meaning with the "kayre lomes". I'll see if anyone else suggests a different answer for that, but if not I'll post my thinking on that one.
    – Harry V.
    Commented Sep 29, 2015 at 12:18
  • Upvoted for the bee-keeping content.
    – user104
    Commented Sep 29, 2015 at 14:50
  • Middle English Dictionary: Lome = tool or implement Commented Sep 29, 2015 at 19:19
  • Agreed, re Lome, but how could one be 'resident upon the grounds'. Or do you read the whole sentence differently (which I'll admit happily is possible).
    – user104
    Commented Sep 29, 2015 at 19:28
  • I took "resident upon the grounds" to mean they were stored outdoors, and not within a barn or shed. Commented Sep 29, 2015 at 20:27

I believe that "kayre lomes" may be a spelling of heirlooms.

In the Oxford English Dictionary, heirloom is defined as:

a. A chattel that, under a will, settlement, or local custom, follows the devolution of real estate. Hence, Any piece of personal property that has been in a family for several generations.

Heirlooms (various sp.) are commonly mentioned in Nottinghamshire Household Inventories (Thoroton Society Record Series, vol XXII, 1963).

  • The problem is that anything can be considered an heirloom. You can't say "I leave all my heirlooms to my daughter, and everything else to my son" without an inventory of what you consider an heirloom. It would be an impossible task for an executor, lawyer, or judge to divide the assets as intended. I don't believe anyone practiced in the writing of wills would allow their client to phrase it that way, unless there was only one heir. Commented Oct 4, 2015 at 18:28
  • @Rusty The will doesn't say that though. He leaves to his son "my house & my Land wth the Appurtenants in any wise belonging or appertaineing wth all the kayre(?) Lomes now ressident upon the grounds." Other specific items were bequeathed to other family members. I am very open to better suggestions.
    – Harry V.
    Commented Oct 4, 2015 at 19:01
  • I see two examples of "hayre lomes" but both say "these things are to be heirlooms" - (1) gyft and bekweth the boke to be hayre lomes at my maner - (2) my Iron grate my fowre beddes wh their furniture a tie a dozen of syluer spones all my plowes waynes, & all thingf thereto belonginge to be hayre- lomes. Commented Oct 5, 2015 at 18:06

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