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36

The letter j originated as a "swash" (florish) character at the end of Roman numerals, and only later became useful as a separate character. A j was used for the final i, to make it clear the number had ended. Until quite recent times it was still the recommended practice to use a final j in medical prescriptions, to avoid misunderstandings. See these ...


11

I think if you delve deeper you may find that the "I" is the Roman numeral for 1 and represents the month of January. I think Roman numerals are being used for months to avoid confusion between date conventions that may place the day number before/after the month number. This conjecture seems to be supported by a Writing month with roman numbers Q&A ...


10

This format of this date is called a Regnal year. It was commonly used in England, and is simply the number of years into the reign of the named monarch. A list of regnal years of English monarchs is available on Wikipedia. Thus: 15 Rich. II = 1392 14 Hen. V is an error, since Henry V only reigned 10 years 36 Hen. VI = 1458 My favourite resource for ...


9

I may be stating the obvious here, but as the etymology of this abbreviation is not covered in PolyGeo's answer: Xember and its associated abbreviations are using X, the Roman numeral 10, to represent the 10th month. Under the old style (Julian) calendar used in Britain and its colonies until 1752, the first month was March, making December the 10th month. ...


7

When you see a date reference in the form Q4 1968, you are looking at what is referred to as a quarter date. Birth Registrations In the United Kingdom, once births are registered, a summary of the information is collected and published in a quarterly index. You can use the index reference to order a certificate for England and Wales via gov.uk -- the ...


7

original, probably an exact transcript of the church register entry "verm. 2. post trin. 1649" with abbreviations expanded, German and Latin "vermahlt 2. [Sonntag] post Trinitatis 1649" English "married on the 2nd Sunday after Trinity Sunday 1649" Moveable Feast Day Calendar for: Germany states that although Catholic states had converted earlier (...


7

To be more confident that "Xemb. means December" (which I suspect it probably does) you could look at slightly earlier entries in the same set of records for abbreviations like VIIemb., VIIIob./VIIIemb. and IXemb. (for September, October and November). I found a Princeton University Abbreviations of the Names of the Months page that lists abbreviations for ...


6

The GEDCOM standard allows for a date that is interpreted from another date. The keyword "INT" indicates that what follows is the Gregorian DATE you've interpreted followed by the DATE_PHRASE you interpreted it from. The DATE_PHRASE is enclosed in parenthesis. You should always translate the date the best you can to a Gregorian date, as that will be the ...


6

Using birth date and birth registration data from my one-place study, I was able to assess how many births occurred in the year they were registered. The data is from all the individuals on the 1939 Register in an East Midland parish, born more than 100 years ago (1916 or earlier). The corresponding GRO birth index entry was located for each 1939 Register ...


5

As suggested by Jan, I looked at adjacent documents, where I found this: That seems to answer my question: The date is January 9, 1879. What looks like a "6" is really "th" (or the equivalent).


5

You are correct in that interpreting dates of events a few hundred years ago is fraught with difficulty. If you extrapolate today's calendar system backwards, you find the changes that you describe - and others. One genealogical guide to recording older dates is Understanding Julian Calendars and Gregorian Calendars in Genealogy (from GenealogyInTime ...


5

It is always advisable to record what the record actually says with Quaker dates because of the various variables in trying to calculate it to the Gregorian calendar of today. Which leads me to part of your question, in 1716 it was still the Julian calendar. In my genealogy program I put Quaker dates as 1716 11m 4d 1716. If your genealogy software doesn't ...


5

More specifically, there used to be a letter named 'thorn' in Old and Middle English, pronounced with a 'th' sound. Over time thorn was drawn more and more like the letter 'y' (though it retained its 'th' sound), and eventually printers started using 'y' in its place to save on letter plates. Thorn had all but disappeared by the 1700s, but earlier texts ...


4

I don't think it says just "y", I think it is "ye" with the "e" superscripted. In other words Mary Wright (Daughter of James Wright & Mary his wife) was born y? 3rd day of the 6th month 1708 becomes: Mary Wright (Daughter of James Wright & Mary his wife) was born ye 3rd day of the 6th month 1708 The recorder seems to have used "the" and ...


4

The extra information in your Bradford Observer record looks helpful. It appears that the marriages and deaths are given in reverse chronological order, starting "yesterday". The publication date was Thursday 14 February 1839, which by convention is "today" within the paper itself. So, working back from that date we can fill out a table of day references in ...


3

My partner who is Swiss agrees that it is a roman numeral "I" and stands for the first month of the year, i.e., January.


3

The date syntax found on that Wikipedia page is not commonplace or conventional. Civil registration in England and Wales was until 1983 organized as a quarterly system. Births, marriages, and deaths that were registered in a given district were collected at the end of March, June, September and December (i.e. the four quarters) and sent to the General ...


3

I would not assume, as in this answer, that all of the events in the newspaper column are past events. The phrase "next Monday" can be ambiguous. In the Southern USA, "Monday week" is used to disambiguate the closest Monday in the calendar ("Monday coming") from the following one. For your example, today is Friday the 10th -- the closest Monday is the ...


3

This is probably just a mistake by the person who made the entry. IMHO you should record the date as that listed in the source record and maybe make a comment in the Notes field. Others coming after you checking your work will see your thinking with the note. One of the tenets of transcription is record what you see NOT what you think you see.


3

Normally that notation means the year of the reign - starting with 1 Henry N or whatever. Except that the notation doesn't work for Henry V who only reigned 1413-1422.... So either I'm wrong or the transcript is wrong.... Feel free to edit this answer if it's useful.


3

As you suggest the quarter of registration provides direct evidence of that fact only - when that particular registration took place, not of the birth date of the child. Given that local registrars can register a birth up to 12 months after the event (originally the limit was 6 months), and at any time at all with the permission of the Registrar General and ...


3

The obvious answer is that that 20th May, 13 E. IV is a regnal date - specifically it refers to the 20th May in the 13th year of the reign of Edward IV. The complication is that Edward IV reigned from 4th March 1461 to 3rd October 1470 and then from 11th April 1471 to 9th April 1483 so working out where the 13th year falls is not completely trivial but ...


3

"Marriage records" lump together a number of different documents that can be found in German church marriage registers. Looking at the page or section headers* is important in order to identify what event initiated the record and what additional events may also be referenced. These may include engagement (Verlobung), marriage contract signing, reading of ...


3

I read the date as "Fer. II. Pasch.", that is the 2nd feastday of Easter -- your interpretation of the Monday following Easter Sunday is valid. Fer. = ferias (holiday) Pasch. = Pascha (Easter) For the numbering, compare the "12 Days of Christmas", which counts Christmas (25 Dec.) as #1 and Epiphany (6 Jan.) as #12.


2

Quakers did not like to use the weekdays and months that were named after Pagan gods, therefore they used numbers instead. Fourth day = Wednesday (the first day being Sunday) Fourth month = April (assuming this is after the adoption of the Gregorian or New Style calendar, which was 1752 in the British Isles) Thus the date being referred to was Wednesday, ...


2

Henry V had only 10 regnal years, so the notation "14 Hen. V" must have an error. My guess is that it should be "14 Hen. VI". I'm assuming that the source is a printed book, a secondary summary of primary sources. In that case, you should try to find the primary sources. Hopefully, that will clear up the mystery. According to the Wikipedia article that @...


2

A possible explanation is that Robert Price was baptised on 4 Feb and that Thomas Hitchcox was baptised on 29 March (that is, the placing of the months is the problem).


2

The explanation can probably be found in the way UK birth records are collected and indexed. Births (and marriages and deaths) up to 1983 are indexed by quarter (Jan-Mar, Apr-Jun, Jul-Sep and Oct-Dec) and those indexes can be searched for free on sites like FreeBMD as well as on paid sites like Ancestry and FindMyPast. After the records were computerised in ...


1

If we assume that the events being reported are past events, which seems reasonable, then maybe an analogy can be drawn between how "this/last month" are described and how "this/last week" might be described. A date in this month is "<date> inst." A date in the last/previous month is "<date> ult." A day in the last/previous week may be "<day&...


1

This is a good question I had not previously been aware of the issue, now I have to go back and check the scope of applicability and some of my own records. A read couple of guides on this particular subject, the general guidance between those guides I got is two fold: Do not change them and take them as written in the original document; especially in ...


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