As we figured it out in the comments, the second entry is a proclamation record (see the abbreviation procl. in the record), the first one an actual marriage record (identified by the word/abbreviation copul./copuliret). The correct dates would then be May 12 1689 for proclamation and May 28 1689 for marriage.
My best guess: “Item Emerich Brunschwiegk und Cristina Brethe..... zusammen gegeben den 13 Novembris”
I’m not entirely sure that the bride’s name is Cristina, could be Cattrina as well, but it defenitly ends with “ina”. Look for similar spellings elsewhere in the same book.
The month seems to be november rather than december. See the last entry for the year, ...
NSFX in GEDCOM is one of the name pieces, specifically the suffix piece. GEDCOM gives "jr." as an example, but it could also include anything else that might be legally after the person's surname and a part of their name, e.g. "III", "Esq", etc.
It is used along with the other name pieces, specifically NPFX (prefix), GIVN (given)...
This is indeed (church) latin. The days are, referring to your list:
Festo Pascha, "Easter festival" -> Easter Sunday
Dom. Quasim. -> White Sunday
Dom. Miseric. -> 2nd Sunday after Easter
As for the numerals, I'm not sure. My guess is that this is the service the proclamation was made in (with several services on each day).
The last name is Braun (compare the first letter with that of Bürgers), the profession is Schmiedemeister, i.e. (master) blacksmith.
The mother's name by the way is given as Christine Maria, not Christina Maria.