Newspapers are the obvious source but thin out as one gets further back.
One resource that is clearly a labour of love, records Historical Weather Events in the UK, collected (it looks like) from a variety of sources.
However, note the warning on that screen that the site will disappear at some point. All is not lost, however, as it is one of those ...
If you are interested in studying the members of an ancestor's community, then you should use the resources of two societies:
The Society for One-Place-Studies. They have a blog, a Facebook group and a Twitter feed.
One-Place Studies. They also have a blog (called Latest News) and a Twitter feed.
As opposed to pure genealogical research, these ...
Via Google books I searched in A Dictionary of Modern Legal Usage, by Bryan A. Garner, Oxford University Press, 2001, On page 38 Garner lists age of capacity,
age of consent, age of majority, and age of reason as terms which "share the general sense 'the age at which a person is legally capable (of doing something)'. But, over time, each term has assumed ...
When you have someone of this kind (Dukes, Duchesses. Earls, Knights....) in your tree then the books Burke’s Peerage, Baronetage and Knightage and Dictionary of National Biography are good places to start. They are expensive but you will quite often find a copy in the reference section of your local main library. Burke's Peerage have a searchable website ...
I'll give a quick summary here and I'll restrict myself to the era described in the question. As others have commented, there are more detailed references online if you wish to get fuller details of each type of school and when they came into existence.
Typically a child then would have started Primary School at age 7 and left at 11.
Infant Schools were ...
A search of Google Books can yield fantastic results.
Richard de Wydeville married Elizabeth, daughter of John Beldelgate and Mary nee Beauchamp:
In the preface of the book cited above, the author, Sir Bernard Burke, describes his source material as follows:
You could try seeking any diaries from your time and place of interest.
It is for a different hemisphere and different century but I am lucky enough to have an 1873 diary written by my 74 year old 3rd great grandfather, Thomas Hitchcox) in Adelaide (South Australia), and the one thing he wrote every day was what the weather was. After early vocations as a ...
Not a perfect answer, but the Met Office has made historical data available here as part of the OpenGov scheme.
It only goes back to 1853 so it doesn't cover your 17th-18th century criterion and some of the data is aggregated. However, it should be of some use.
With the help of Judith's overview, I found the following resources. They seem to disagree on the school leaving age, but the consensus is that Judith's answer is correct and the age of entering school was five years old:
A Wikipedia article on the Elementary Education Act 1870 ( Forster's Education Act), which was introduced 17 February 1870, and ...
If I am correct from the following it is clear that although Gottlibe Schidt, was German, he was however not a German soldier, but and English soldier. Which I think therefore answers your question.
Gottlibe Schidt Born 1761, Death 2 April 1819 aged 58
King's German Legion - Wikipedia
The King's ...